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Modern archeology and research shows a Portuguese root to the Celts in Portugal and elsewhere.
Chief among these tribes were the Lusitanians, with the core area of these people lying in inland central Portugal, other related tribes existed such as the Gallaeci of Northern Portugal, the Celtici of Alentejo, and the Cynetes or Conii of the Algarve.
A member of the United Nations and the European Union, Portugal was also one of the founding members of NATO, the eurozone, the OECD, and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries.
Portugal is a developed country with a high-income advanced economy, a developed market, and high living standards. Portugal ranks above the OECD average in Mathematics, Science, and Reading, having been the country with the most expressive positive evolution throughout PISA's studies.
The name Portucale evolved into Portugale during the 7th and 8th centuries, and by the 9th century, that term was used extensively to refer to the region between the rivers Douro and Minho, the Minho flowing along what would become the northern Portugal-Spain border.
However, events such as the destruction of Lisbon in a 1755 earthquake, the country's occupation during the Napoleonic Wars, and the independence of Brazil (1822), left Portugal crippled from war and diminished in its world power.
After the 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy, the democratic but unstable Portuguese First Republic was established, later being superseded by the Estado Novo right-wing authoritarian regime.
After the Battle of São Mamede, where Portuguese forces led by Afonso Henriques defeated forces led by his mother, Theresa of Portugal, the County of Portugal affirmed its sovereignty and Afonso Henriques styled himself Prince of Portugal.
He would later be proclaimed King of Portugal at the Battle of Ourique in 1139 and was recognised as such by neighbouring kingdoms in 1143.